Thursday, November 4, 2010

Splendid Pseudochromis - Pseudochromis splendens

Manonichthys splendens (Syn. Pseudochromis splendens)

This pretty and brightly colored fish inhabits the Indian Ocean and the west pacific region. Due to its striking color pattern,it occasionally makes its way into the aquarium trade. This checkered fish grows to a size of 13cm long.


Baby born to Romanian girl in Spain

A 10-year-old girl from Romania has given birth in southern Spain, officials in the region have said.

The girl gave birth to a daughter last week in the city of Jerez de la Frontera, said Andalucia's social affairs minister Micaela Navarro.

Officials are deciding whether the mother and her family can keep custody, Ms Navarro said.

The father of the baby is also believed to be a minor, aged 13, who is still in Romania, Spanish media have said.

"What we have to ensure is that both the mother, who in this case is a minor as well, and the baby are absolutely taken care of," said Ms Navarro.

"If they can be well cared for, they can stay with the family," she said.

The baby's grandmother, who is a Roma gypsy, was photographed in Spanish newspapers smiling outside the family's modest block of flats in the town of Lebrija, AFP reports.

Her 10-year-old daughter is reported to have moved to Spain from Romania just three weeks ago.

The woman, identified only as Olimpia, was quoted as saying that the mother was "very well, like the daughter, who is very well and very pretty".

According to the Andalucia daily, Diario de Jerez, which first reported the story, the grandmother could not understand the wide level of interest in the case as "this is the age we get married in Romania".

The latest statistics show that 177 girls under the age of 15 gave birth in Spain in 2008.


Taal Volcano

Taal Volcano is a complex volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is situated between the towns of Talisay and San Nicolas in Batangas. It consists of an island in Lake Taal, which is situated within a caldera formed by an earlier, very powerful eruption. It is located about 50 km (31 miles) from the capital, Manila. It is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines, all part of the Pacific ring of fire.

The volcano has erupted violently several times, causing loss of life in the populated areas surrounding the lake, the current death toll standing at around 5,000 to 6,000. Because of its proximity to populated areas and eruptive history, the volcano has been designated a Decade Volcano worthy of close study to prevent future natural disasters. It was thought to be named as "a volcano inside a volcano" because many believed that the lake that circles the volcano was once a crater or mouth of a volcano.

The Batangas province towns along the shores of Taal Lake include Tanauan, Talisay, Laurel, Agoncillo, San Nicolas, Santa Teresita, Alitagtag, Cuenca, Lipa, Balete and Mataas na Kahoy. The extinct crater on Volcano Island is also visible along high property value Tagaytay Ridge for visitors coming from Manila or enroute the Batangas coast and ports to the South.

Current activity
Although the volcano has been quiet since 1977, It has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud pots and mud geysers on parts of the island. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) regularly issues notices and warnings about current activity at Taal, including ongoing seismic unrest.

- 8 June. PHIVOLCS raised the volcano status to Alert Level 2 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status), which indicates the volcano is undergoing magmatic intrusion which could eventually lead to an eruption. PHIVOLCS reminds the general public that the Main Crater remains off-limits because hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur, along with the possible build-up of toxic gases. Areas with hot ground and steam emission such as portions of the Daang Kastila Trail are considered hazardous.
- 11–24 May. Crater lake temperature increased by 2-3°C. The composition of Main Crater Lake water has shown above normal values of Mg/Cl, SO4/Cl and Total Dissolved Solids. There has been ground steaming accompanied by hissing sounds on the northern and northeast sides of the main crater.
- 26 April. Volcanic earthquakes had increased.
“Phivolcs reiterates that the whole Taal Volcano Island is a high-risk area and a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and permanent settlement within this area is strictly prohibited," he said.

Previous activity
There have been 33 recorded eruptions at Taal since 1572. One of the more devastating eruptions occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consisted of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content.

20 July. National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) NDCC executive officer Glenn Rabonza warned that although there were no volcanic quakes detected at Taal since the detection of nine volcanic quakes from June 13 to July 19, and there had been no steaming activity monitored since the last recorded on June 23, Phivolcs Alert stands at Level 1, warning Taal’s main crater is off-limits to the public because steam explosions may suddenly occur or high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.

28 August. PHIVOLCS notified the "public and concerned authorities" that the "Taal seismic network recorded ten (10) volcanic earthquakes from 5:30 A.M. to 3P.M. today. Two (2) of these quakes that occurred at 12:33 and 12:46 P.M. were both felt at intensity II by residents at barangay Pira-piraso. These quakes were accompanied by rumbling sounds. The events were located northeast of the volcano island near Daang Kastila area with depths of approximately 0.6km (12:33 P.M.) and 0.8km (12:46 P.M.)"

Taal Volcano Eruptions
1977, 1976, 1970, 1969, 1968, 1967, 1966, 1965, 1911, 1904, 1903, 1885?, 1878, 1874, 1873, 1842, 1825, 1808, 1790, 1754, 1749, 1731, 1729, 1716, 1715, 1709, 1707, 1645, 1641, 1635, 1634, 1609, 1591, 1572.

Taal Volcano Eruptions 1572-1911 Timeline graph of Taal Volcano Eruptions from 1600-2010

The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic explosions. The 1965 eruption in particular led to the recognition of base surge as a process in volcanic eruption (due to the fact that one of the American geologists, who visited the volcano shortly after the 1965 eruption, had witnessed an atomic bomb explosion when he was a soldier). The eruption generated base surges and cold pyroclastic flows, which traveled several kilometers across Lake Taal, devastating villages on the lake shore and, killing about a hundred people. The population of the island was evacuated only after the onset of the eruption. Precursory signs were not interpreted correctly until after the eruption. Eruptions in 1968 and 1969 were characterized partly by Strombolian activity and produced a massive lava flow that reached the shore of lake Taal. The 1977 eruption merely produced a small cinder cone within the main crater.

Geological history

Taal Volcano is part of a chain of volcanos along the western side of the edge of the island of Luzon, which were formed by the subduction of the Eurasian Plate underneath the Philippine Mobile Belt. Taal Lake lies within a 25–30 km caldera formed by four explosive eruptions between 500,000 and 100,000 years ago. Each of these eruptions created extensive ignimbrite deposits, reaching as far away as where Manila stands today.

Since the formation of the caldera, subsequent eruptions have created another volcanic island, within the caldera, known as Volcano Island. This island covers an area of about 23 km², and consists of overlapping cones and craters. Forty-seven different cones and craters have been identified on the island.

The 1754 Eruption

Taal Volcano's greatest recorded eruption occurred in 1754. Stationed in Taal, Fr. Buencuchillo reported:

On May 15, 1754, at about 9 or 10 o'clock in the night, the volcano quite unexpectedly commenced to roar and emit, sky-high, burning flames intermixed with glowing rocks which, falling back upon the island and rolling down the slopes of the mountain, created the impression of a large river of fire. During the following days there appeared in the lake a large quantity of pumice stone which had been ejected by the volcano. Part of these eject had also reached the hamlet of Bayuyungan and completely destroyed it.

The volcano continued thus until June 2, during the night of which the eruption reached such proportions that the falling ejecta made the entire island appear to be on fire, and it was even feared that the catastrophe might involve the shores of the lake. From the said 2nd of June until September 25, the volcano never ceased to eject fire and mud of such bad character that the best ink does not cause so black a stain.

During the night of September 25, the fire emitted was quite extraordinary and accompanied by terrifying rumblings. The strangest thing was, that within the black column of smoke issuing from the volcano ever since June 2, there frequently formed thunderstorms, and it happened that the huge tempest cloud would scarcely ever disappear during two months.

At daybreak of September 26 we found ourselves forced to abandon our dwelling for fear lest the roofs come down upon us under the weight of ashes and stones which had fallen upon them during that hapless night. In fact, some weaker buildings collapsed. The depth of the layer of ashes and stones exceeded two "cuartas" (45 centimeters), and the result was that there was neither tree nor other plant which it did not ruin or crush, giving to the whole region an aspect as if a devastating conflagration had swept over it. After this the volcano calmed down considerably, though not sufficiently to offer any prospect of tranquility.

During the night of November 1, Taal resumed its former fury, ejecting fire, rocks, sand, and mud in greater quantities than ever before. On November 15, it vomited enormous boulders which rolling down the slopes of the island, fell into the lake and caused huge waves [note(added by Saderra Maso): The waves mentioned were most probably due to the earthquake rather than to the falling rocks]. The paroxysms were accompanied by swaying motions of the ground which caused all the houses of the town to totter. We had already abandoned our habitation and were living in a tower which appeared to offer greater security; but on this occasion we resolved that the entire population retire to the Sanctuary of Casaysay, only the "Administrator" and myself to remain on the spot.

At 7 in the evening of November 28 occurred a new paroxysm, during which the volcano vomited forth such masses of fire and ejecta that in my opinion, all the material ejected during so many months, if taken together, would not equal the quantity which issued at the time. The columns of fire and smoke ascended higher than ever before, increasing every moment in volume, and setting fire to the whole island, there being not the smallest portion of the latter which was not covered by the smoke and the glowing rocks and ashes. All this was accompanied by terrific lightning and thunder above, and violent shocks of earthquakes underneath. The cloud of ejecta, carried on by the wind, extended itself toward west and south with the result that we saw already some stones fall close to our shore. I, therefore, shouted to all those who were still in the town to take to flight and we all ran off in a hurry; otherwise we would have been engulfed on the spot; as the waves of the angry lake began already to flood the houses nearest to the beach.

We left the town, fleeing this living picture of Sodom, with incessant fear lest the raging waters of the lake overtake us, which were at the moment invading the main part of the town, sweeping away everything they encountered. On the outskirts of the town, I came upon a woman who was so exhausted by her burden of two little children and a bundle of clothing that she could proceed no farther. Moved by pity, I took one of the toddlers from her and carried him, and the little indio who has been wailing while in the arms of his mother, stopped short when I took him into mine and never uttered a sound while I was carrying him a good piece of the way.

Having reached a secure place on elevated ground at a distance of about half a league (2 kilometers) from the town, we halted in a hut to rest a little and take some food. From this spot the volcano could be contemplated with a little more serenity of mind. It still continued in full fury, ejecting immense masses of material. Now I also observed that the earth was in continuous, swaying motion, a fact which I had failed to notice during the excitement and fear of the flight.

Shortly afterward the volcano suddenly subsided almost suddenly; its top was clear and apparently calm. We, therefore, returned on the following day, the 29th, to the town with the intention of surveying the havoc wrought during the preceding night.

The 29th had dawned calm, but while we were still trying to persuade ourselves that the tragedy was over and the volcano had exhausted its bowels, at about 8 o'clock, we heard a crash and then I noticed that smoke was rising from the point of the island that looks towards east. The smoke spread very gradually as far as the crater of the volcano, while there were many whiffs issuing from points in the direction of another headland. I realized that the island had opened in these places and fearing that, if a crater should open below the water, an explosion might follow, much more formidable than the preceding ones, I mounted a horse and retired permanently to the Sanctuary of Caysasay.

Between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the said 29th, it began to rain mud and ashes at Caysasay [12 miles from the volcano] and this rain lasted three days. The most terrifying circumstance was that the whole sky was shrouded in such darkness that we could not have seen the hand placed before the face, had it not been for the sinister glare of incessant lightnings. Nor could we use artificial light as this was extinguished by the wind and copious ashes which penetrated everywhere. All was horror those three days, which appeared rather like murky nights and we did not occupy ourselves with anything but see to it that the natives swept off the roofs the large quantities of ashes and stones which kept on accumulating upon them and threatened to bring them down upon us, burying us alive beneath their weight. But fearing that even these precautions might prove unavailing, we 3 Europeans - viz. Fr. Prior, the Alcalde, and myself - the only ones who were at the time in the Convento of Caysasay, took refuge on the landing of the stairs; as the safest place, and awaited there whatever God might dispose with regard to us. To all this was added incessant thunder and lightning, and it really looked as if the world was going to pieces and its axis had been displaced.

During the night of the 30th we had not a moment of repose, as every moment we heard the loud crush of houses collapsing under of stones, mud, and ashes piled upon them, and feared that the turn of the convento and the church of Casasay would come in next. Shortly before daybreak of December 1 there was a tremendous crash as if the house were coming down on our heads: the roof of the apse of the church had caved in! Not long afterward, the roof of their kitchen gave away with a thud. Both were tile roofs.

The first of December broke somewhat clear and our eyes contemplated everywhere ruins and destruction. The layer of ashes and mud was more than 5 spans [1.10 m] thick, and it was almost a miracle that the roof of the church and convento sustained so great a weight. We caused the bulk of the material to be removed, while new continued to fall on that day and the following, on which latter the direction of the wind changed, carrying the ejecta toward Balayan. On the 3rd and 4th we had a formidable typhoon, and thereafter the volcano quieted down.

Soon afterward I resolved to visit my town of Taal; nothing was left of it except the walls of the church and convento. All the rest, the government house, the walks of the rope factory, the warehouse, everything was buried beneath a layer of stones, mud, and ashes more than 10 spans [2.20 m] thick; only here and there could be seen an upright post, the only remnant of a comfortable dwelling. I went down to the river and found it completely filled up, with a boat belonging to the alcalde and many of private persons buried in the mud. After incredible efforts I finally succeeded in unearthing in what had once been the church and sacristy, the chests which contained the sacred vestments and vessels. Nearly all of them were demolished by the rocks and beams which had fallen upon them, and filled with foul-smelling mud that had ruined or disfigured their contents. With the aid of some natives of Bauang I likewise recovered some property from among the ruins of the convento.

Twelve persons are known to have perished - some carried away by the waves of the lake, others crushed beneath their collapsing houses. Thus the beautiful town of Taal remains a deserted wilderness and reduced to the utmost misery, while once it was one of the richest and most flourishing places. In the villages to the west of the lake, which were the greater and better part, all the houses have either collapsed under the load of material which had been piled upon them or have disappeared completely, swept away by the waves which in these places were so violent that they dug three ditches or channels, too wide and deep to be forded, and thus rendered impassable the road which joins the town with Balayan. In other parts of the lake shore have likewise opened many cracks and occurred very extensive slides. The worst of all is, that, the mouth of the river Pansipit having been blocked, the lake is rising and invading the towns of Lipa and Tanauan, both being on the lowest level, and inundating their buildings. All the animals of whatever kind have perished, some by being buried, others by drowning, the rest by starving, as not a green blade remained anywhere.

The same fate as Taal has befallen the towns of Lipa, Tanauan, and so much of Sala as still existed. These towns, together with Taal, lay around the lake, being situated within easy reach of it, and less than one league [4 kilometers] from the volcano. The bulk of the population left this neighborhood and settled in more distant places. Thus out of 1200 taxpayers whom Taal contained formerly, hardly 150 remain in the poorest and least respectable villages, which suffered little from the rain of ashes.

Crater Lake & Vulcan Point

Volcano Island contains a lake about 2 km across, called Crater Lake. Within Crater Lake is another small volcanic island, called Vulcan Point. Vulcan Point is frequently cited in the Philippines as the world's largest volcanic island within a lake on an island within a lake on an island, namely, Vulcan Point within Crater Lake, on Taal Island within Lake Taal, on the island of Luzon.

Eruption precursors at Taal

In light of its proximity to populated areas and violent eruptive history, Taal has been designated one of sixteen Decade Volcanoes, making it a focus for research efforts and disaster mitigation plans. While seismic activity is a common precursor to eruptive activity, another useful indicator at Taal is the temperature of Lake Taal. Before the 1965 eruption began, the lake's temperature rose to several degrees above normal. However, the lake's temperature does not always rise before an eruption. Before some eruptions, the dissolution of acidic volcanic gases into the lake has resulted in the death of large numbers of fish and animals.

Earthquake precursors, Taal region

Volcanologists measuring the concentration of radon gas in the soil on Volcano island measured an anomalous increase of the radon concentration by a factor of six in October 1994. This increase was followed 22 days later by a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on November 15, centred about 50 km south of Taal, off the coast of Luzon.

A typhoon had passed through the area a few days before the radon spike was measured, but when Typhoon Angela, one of the most powerful to strike the area in ten years, crossed Luzon on almost the same track a year later, no radon spike was measured. Therefore, typhoons were ruled out as the cause, and there is strong evidence that the radon originated in the stress accumulation preceding the earthquake.


Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Smith Volcano - Cagayan

Smith Volcano, also known as Mount Babuyan, is a stratovolcano on one of the Babuyan Islands off northern Luzon island in the Philippines.

Physical features
The sparsely-vegetated cinder cone is 688 meters high with a base diameter of 4.5 km.

Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program reports that there may be five Pleistocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers on Babuyan de Claro Island. The largest is Babuyan Claro, also known as Mt. Pangasun, an active stratovolcano with two summit craters 300 and 400 m in diameter. Smith Volcano is 4 km northwest of Babuyan Claro and is the youngest volcano on the island.

Askedna Hot Spring is located at the southern base of Babuyan Claro.

Smith Volcano has erupted six times, the last of which was in 1924.

A team of volcanologists visited the island on July 8, 1993, to investigate reports of unusual volcanic activity. They found no activity and recorded no volcanic earthquakes.

Smith Volcano is one of the active volcanos in the Philippines, which are all part of the Pacific ring of fire.

= * = * =

Mount Smith in Cagayan province with an elevation of 688 meters above sea level had erupted 6 times already and the last known eruption of this active Philippine volcano was recorded in 1924. This beautiful volcano is also known as Mount Babuyan.


Thursday, February 11, 2010

Lucian Freud black-eyed portrait fetches £2.8m

Lucian Freud's Self-Portrait With A Black Eye has sold for £2,841,250 at Sotheby's in London.

The estimate for the work, which shows the artist with a swollen eye following a punch-up with a taxi driver, was £3m to £4m.

Sotheby's said the rediscovered 1978 work was his "most important self-depiction ever to appear at auction".

The top lot at the London Evening Sale of Contemporary Art was Willem De Kooning's Untitled XIV, fetching £4m.

Self-Portrait With A Black Eye, which has never been displayed in public before, has remained in the same private collection for more than 30 years.

Freud, now 87, was in his late 50s when he painted the work.

He once said that he "used to have a lot of fights".

"It wasn't because I liked fighting, it was really just that people said things to me to which I felt the only reply was to hit them."

Sotheby's sale, which also included Freud's 1981 oil on canvas Guy and Speck and his Portrait of Christian Berard, fetched a total of £54.1m.

Yves Klein's fire painting F 88 sold for £3.3m.


Friday, February 5, 2010

Giacometti sculpture fetches £65m at Sotheby's auction

A life-size bronze sculpture of a man by Alberto Giacometti has been sold at auction in London for the world record price of £65,001,250.

It took just eight minutes for bidders to reach the hammer price after L'Homme Qui Marche I opened at £12m at Sotheby's auction house.

Sotheby's said it was the most expensive work ever sold at auction.

An anonymous phone bidder bought the work for £58m. The £65m price tag includes the buyer's premium.

The sculpture is considered to be one of the most important by the 20th Century Swiss artist.

It had been estimated to sell for between £12m and £18m but furious bidding saw more than 10 rivals bump the price up, eventually reaching the hammer price of £58m.

Georgina Adam, editor-at-large of The Art Newspaper, said the price was so high because there were so few Giacometti sculptures and it was very rare for them to be put up for auction.

She told the BBC: "There's a market which is sort of exceptional for exceptional things.

"If something is a one in a lifetime opportunity, people will really step up to the plate and they will spend enormous amounts of money because it was a now or never opportunity."

The previous record for an art work sold at auction -$104,168,000 (£58,520,830) - was held by Pablo Picasso's Garcon a la Pipe which sold in New York in 2004.

Other works have reached more in private sales. Jackson Pollock's No5, 1948, reached $140m (£73m at the time) in 2006.

Another art work also exceeded expectations at Sotheby's Impressionist and Modern Art sale.

Gustav Klimt's Kirche in Cassone went for £26,921,250, above the £12m to £18m estimate.

Paul Cezanne's Pichet et fruits sur une table was sold for just under £12m.

Melanie Clore, of Sotheby's Impressionist and Modern Art department, said: "We are thrilled to have sold these great works this evening and that they have been recognised for the masterpieces that they are.

"The competition which generated these exceptional results demonstrates the continued quest for quality that compels today's collectors."


Saturday, December 5, 2009

Climate Change

Kenya Wildlife Service officials handle a tranquilized elephant that had strayed in search of pasture and got stuck in the drying river Ewaso Ng'iro- Nyahururu about 200km North of Kenya capital Nairobi. Rivers are drying up due to climate change.

Suleiman Mbatiah


Drought - Famine

A farmer in Laikipia West District, Rift Valley province feeds his animals with Grevillea robusta (Mukima), the only green vegetation left in the area after a severe drought struck the area. Thousands of animals have since died of drought related diseases.
Photo: Suleiman Mbatiah


Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Portrait of Sir Thomas Philips

Portrait of Sir Thomas Philips in Eastern Costume, Reclining with a Hookah

Artist: Richard Dadd


Afghan Woman

A displaced Afghan woman waits to receive aid during at a distribution centre in Kabul.
Photo: AFP/Getty Images


Susan Boyle

Susan Boyle looks as cheery as Christmas as she holds her new album outside her home in Blackburn, Scotland / AP


Bodies in Urban Spaces Street Exhibition

A group of performers have stunned people across Europe by cramming their bodies into strange formations along many urban landscapes.
By Kate Schneider


Sunday, January 25, 2009

Sand Sculpture

French artist Michael Klein puts the finishing touches to his sand sculpture, showing a Sea Dragon, on the beach of Cannes, southern France, Wednesday, Jan 21, 2009


Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Eastern Christmas

Merry Christmas


Tuesday, January 6, 2009

India's Richest 2008 - Mukesh Ambani

Net Worth: $20.8 billion

Makes debut as India's richest, despite fact that net worth fell $28.2 billion in past year as stock price of petrochemicals flagship Reliance Industries tanked. Unfazed, Mukesh upped Reliance stake, paying $3.4 billion to convert 120 million preferential warrants into shares, at a premium to stock price. Legal spat with estranged brother Anil over gas supply agreement still unresolved.

Age: 51
Marital Status: Married, 3 children
Hometown: Mumbai

Annual billionaires list, 2008, this ranking has been broadened to include family fortunes.


The Archangel Michael

ABADIA, Juan de la
Spanish (Aragonian) painter (active 1470-1490 in Huesca)

The Archangel Michael
c. 1490
Wood, 127 x 78 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona


Sunday, January 4, 2009

THE FOOD DOCTOR: How to be a super-eater

In his new book, The Food Doctor, Ian Marber explores not just individual superfoods but super-eating. He believes we can maximise the value of nutrients in foods by understanding how they work together. Here he explains how, by improving diet, we can increase our energy levels - something we may all feel need a boost at the beginning of a new year.

In today's pressurised environment, feeling unusually tired is an accepted part of life for many people. But I am confident that improving diet can make a big difference.

We eat for a variety of reasons, ranging from hunger to social conditioning. Simple hunger is a signal that we need fuel to make energy. Therefore, all eating is actually done to create energy and help in the repair and renewal of the body.

All nutrients are required to make energy but the process of making the sort of energy that we think we need for things such as moving and running is done in the cells, and in this process some nutrients have a more pivotal role than others.

There are few, if any, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and essential fats that are not used in creating energy. What we eat and drink is broken down by the digestive system; nutrients and glucose are released and then filtered through membranes into the bloodstream before entering the cells in various forms.

It's not just glucose that is required but also substances such as amino acids and fats. Glucose comes mainly from carbohydrates, while amino acids are found in protein and, lastly, fats are used, too. All food is broken down in the digestive system and the end-products are separated into their constituent parts for delivery into a 'power station' or Krebs Cycle, a series of chemical reactions in which the body's cells metabolise glucose for energy.

There occurs a complex and intricate process in which pyruvic acid, glucose, amino acids and the end product of fats are oxidised and converted into adenosine 5 - otherwise known as triphosphate, or ATP. This is the form of energy that powers most of the bodily functions. Some foods work especially well together and it is in these combinations that we can really make what we eat work so much more effectively for us.

Nutrition is often full of negative messages, and the positive approach of Supereating is a refreshing change. The traditional message of eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, lean protein, essential fats, fibre and water still stands.

However, it seems like a natural progression to ask if some fruit or vegetables are more effective than others and as we eat foods in combinations then how do those foods and the nutrients they contain interact?

For example, if you eat cashew nuts, then you could maximise your uptake of Vitamin K by eating them with a probiotic food. This could mean having miso soup alongside your chicken and cashew nuts or a spoonful of plain yogurt if you were having nuts as a snack.

Nutrients and their role

PROBIOTICS help the creation of B vitamins from other foods but also make a small amount themselves. They also help release magnesium from food.
Foods to go for: Sauerkraut, yogurt and miso. Other foods containing probiotics include tomatoes,
onions, garlic and bananas for the oligosaccharides, or simple sugars.

MAGNESIUM acts as a glucose carrier, transporting it to the cells where it is absorbed ready for conversion to pyruvic acid and on to the Krebs Cycle.
Foods to go for: Oat bran, brown rice, quinoa, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, whole grains, nuts, lentils and dark green leafy vegetables.

CHROMIUM makes insulin more potent.
Foods to go for: Liver, poultry, shellfish, broccoli, whole grains, pulses and spices, grape juice.

VITAMIN B1 has a direct role in the conversion of glucose into pyruvic acid, as well as in the creation of
ATP in the Krebs Cycle. It is also used to turn fats into pyruvic acid, thus helping in the process of creating energy from the fat we eat.
Foods to go for: Whole grains, lentils and beans provide reasonable amounts of Vitamin B1, but the highest levels can be found in wheatgerm, sunflower seeds and lean pork.

VITAMIN B2, like B1, helps in the creation of pyruvic acid and is used to convert fats into ATP as well as in the Krebs Cycle. B2 is also required to move electrons around, so that energy is released from the cycle.
Foods to go for: Dairy, particularly yogurt; eggs; fish, especially trout and tuna; broccoli, spinach and avocados; red meat and dark chicken meat; grains, particularly oat bran, wheatgerm, quinoa and rye.

VITAMIN B3 is required in the Krebs Cycle in addition to helping in the process of fats becoming pyruvic acid. Lastly, it is required to help carry electrons out of the Krebs Cycle, which is the last stage of creating ATP.
Foods to go for: High-protein foods, such as poultry, fish, red meat and liver; chestnut mushrooms; foods high in tryptophan will help boost niacin levels, so dairy and eggs would be good choices.

VITAMIN C is an essential part of the creation of ATP in the Krebs Cycle and also in the last stage of energy release, called the electron transfer chain.
Foods to go for: All fresh fruit and vegetables but particularly good sources include acerola cherries, all citrus fruits, cantaloupe melons, pineapples, blackcurrants, strawberries, peppers, potatoes and dark green leafy vegetables such as kale.

BIOTIN helps amino acids in proteins become pyruvic acid and also in getting into the Krebs Cycle. It is also required in the breakdown of fats into energy.
Foods to go for: Offal (particularly liver); fish, egg yolk and soya products; nuts (notably hazelnuts); Swiss chard, sweet potato, tomatoes, carrots and avocado.

A day's supereating

Mixed grain porridge with soya or skimmed milk, topped with flaked almonds and chopped strawberries.

A fruit salad of oranges, grapefruit and cherries.

Grilled fresh tuna or tinned tuna with salad leaves, peppers, carrots and tomatoes, with a lemon juice and olive oil dressing.

Hard-boiled egg, chopped and made into a paste with plain yogurt, avocado and black pepper, spread on oatcakes.

Stir-fry of chard, kale, spinach, broccoli, mushrooms and peppers, mixed with quinoa and served with either grilled calves' liver, steak or lamb fillet.

Release the energy within

Blueberries: Rich in antioxidants, eat with some fat such as plain yogurt or a few nuts to help the absorption of Vitamin E.

Prawns: A good source of antioxidants. Have with a vegetable rich in Vitamin C to help iron absorption.

Pine nuts: Add to avocado to assist copper release. Rich in antioxidants.

Beetroot: Contains manganese, which works well with iron, as does Vitamin C.

Chicken: Full of antioxidants and protein. Eat with edamame beans or mushrooms to enhance absorption of phosphorus into the bones.

Apples: Low in fructose and high in Vitamin C, so useful for iron absorption.

Broccoli: Requires a fat eaten alongside to maximise use of Vitamins A and K. Plain yogurt will work well.


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